cbn et amélioration des troubles du sommeil

CBN (Cannabinol): Exploring the Properties and Benefits of Sleep | House Sativa

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Introduction (Beginner level) :

Cannabinol (CBN) is one of several cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, but is particularly known for its potential role in improving sleep. Unlike its cousin THC, CBN has low psychoactive potential , making it a topic of interest to those looking for natural sleep remedies without the side effects of THC.

As a reminder, a psychotropic effect refers to all the modifications in perceptions, sensations, mood, consciousness or behavior induced by the ingestion or administration of a substance. Substances with a psychotropic effect can temporarily alter brain function and influence the way a person thinks, feels, or perceives the world around them.

Origin of CBN (Beginner level) :

CBN is unique in that it does not come directly from the cannabis plant. In reality, it is produced when THC is exposed to oxygen and light for an extended period of time. So if you've ever heard that aged cannabis can cause drowsiness, it's probably because of the increased presence of CBN.

Summary of the CBN (expert level):

Cannabinol (CBN) is primarily a breakdown product of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). When THC is exposed to oxygen, light, or high temperatures over an extended period of time, it undergoes oxidation which converts it to CBN. This reaction particularly occurs when cannabis is stored for long periods of time without adequate protection from these elements.

synthesis of CBN from THC

Biochemically, this transformation involves the conversion of the pentyl ring of THC into a propyl ring, thus producing CBN. Although CBN has psychoactive properties, it is significantly less active than THC in terms of intensity. It should be noted that this conversion does not require any specific enzymes or catalysts, but rather occurs due to prolonged exposure to environmental factors that promote oxidative degradation.

Mode of action of CBN (Expert level) :

CBN works primarily by interacting with the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS), a complex network of receptors that plays a role in regulating many functions, including sleep. Although CBN does not have a strong affinity for CB1 receptors like THC, it can still have synergy with THC, increasing its sedative effect.

endocannabinoid system

Preliminary studies also suggest that CBN may increase the release of sleep peptides in the brain, thereby influencing sleep duration and quality.

When we talk about sleep peptides, we often refer to hypocretin (also called orexin ), a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Orexin neurons, located in the hypothalamus, project their axons to many brain regions and control wakefulness. A decrease in these peptides can lead to increased drowsiness and, in extreme cases, can cause disorders such as narcolepsy. If CBN indeed influences the release of these peptides, this could partly explain its effect on sleep.

hypocretin network involved in the different phases of sleep

However, it is important to note that research into CBN and its potential effects on sleep peptides is still in its early stages. Further studies are needed to understand precisely how CBN interacts with these systems and how this may influence sleep.

Additionally, CBN may act as a mild agonist of TRPV2 receptors, which may have implications in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle.

The different phases of sleep and the molecules involved

Sleep is a dynamic process involving several phases, each with its own electroencephalographic and physiological characteristics. These phases are closely linked to the action of various neurotransmitters and molecules.

sleep cycle

1. Awakening phase before sleep (sleepiness)

Before falling asleep, the person goes from a state of active wakefulness to a state of relaxation. The brain begins to produce alpha waves, characteristic of a state of relaxation.

Molecules and neurotransmitters involved:

  • Serotonin and norepinephrine: These two neurotransmitters maintain wakefulness when active. Their activity gradually decreases during this phase, favoring the transition to sleep.

2. Light sleep (Stage 1 and 2)

These are the early stages of sleep, characterized by slow brain waves and slow eye movements.

Molecules and neurotransmitters involved:

  • Acetylcholine: It remains active, although reduced, contributing to the reduction of muscle tone.
  • GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid): This inhibitory neurotransmitter plays a role in reducing brain activity, facilitating the transition to deep sleep.

3. Deep sleep (Stage 3 and 4)

This phase is characterized by delta waves, which are slow brain waves. It's the most restful sleep.

Molecules and neurotransmitters involved:

  • GABA: Its role becomes more dominant, providing deep inhibition that prevents the brain from processing external stimuli.
  • Growth hormone: It is released in large quantities, promoting tissue repair and regeneration.

4. REM sleep (REM - Rapid Eye Movement)

During this phase, the brain is very active, similar to wakefulness, but the body is paralyzed. This is the phase where dreams occur.

Molecules and neurotransmitters involved:

  • Acetylcholine: It is at its highest level, which promotes rapid brain activity.
  • GABA and Glycine: They cause temporary muscle paralysis, preventing movement during dreams.

Benefits of CBN on sleep (Beginner level) :

Early clinical studies found that CBN may prolong the slow-wave sleep phase, also known as deep sleep. This is the most restorative phase of sleep, crucial for physical and cognitive recovery.

One study showed that the combination of THC and CBN led to prolonged sedation, although CBN alone did not have this effect. This suggests that CBN may work best synergistically with other cannabinoids.

EB Russo in 2007 entitled “ Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects ” published in the British Journal of Pharmacology.

Conclusion (Beginner level):

`CBN, although less studied than other cannabinoids like CBD and THC, shows great potential, especially for those who have difficulty sleeping. As research continues to advance, CBN may very well find itself at the center of the next big breakthrough in natural sleep.

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